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5个印度内容分享网站

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1、The Logical Indian

图片 1

印度在线零售大竞赛

接下来的15年,印度将比其他任何国家迎来更多的在线购物人群。

电子商务行业为了他们的客户已经展开疯狂的争夺。

2016年3月5日

图片 2

3月份,迪士尼正式以713亿美元收购福克斯,好莱坞六大电影公司分庭抗礼的版图永久改变。但更重要的是,福克斯不仅仅是电影公司。该次收购中还包括其旗下的20世纪福克斯影业、20世纪福克斯电视公司,还有部分电视网和电视公司的股份。

孟买郊区,早晨,宁静、天气温和。

斑驳的阳光洒在尘土飞扬的街道,一只流浪狗在垃圾堆中翻找食物,一些小商铺的百叶窗已经打开。

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印度城市街道

一名男子推着一台装满橘子的车,堆得像金字塔的形状。

一名投递男孩,名叫阿尼尔,正在飞驰在他的路线上,摩托车是从他叔叔那借来的,他的投递背包和他一样大。

这男孩已经工作好几个小时了,规划路线,小心翼翼的将货物塞满他的背包,得确保到目的地之后可以在包的顶部拿出来。

阿尼尔走进一栋公寓楼,挤压背包以挤进狭窄的电梯,将一件衬衫送给一个21岁的出租车司机。

在临近的塔楼立他将一个智能手机的订单交给一位16岁的人,他使用几个应用程序为他的家庭成员购物。

不远处,一位78岁的老奶奶是特别高兴的客户——在她孙子的帮助下,她买了一些别的地方找不到的陶土罐,还有一些廉价的高品质莎丽(南亚妇女服饰)。对阿尼尔来说,这是一项艰苦的工作。但是他确信印度的电子商务已无处不在、处于上升期,他希望能跟着趋势一起飞。

接下来的15年,印度将比其他任何国家迎来更多的在线购物人群。

去年电商零售已经达到160亿美元;2020年,根据摩根士丹利的报告,在线零售市场可能增长7倍以上。

印度的这个销售预期增长比其它任何市场都要快。

这吸引了大量的电子商务公司,其影响可能远远不止是替代线下零售投资而已。

印度的小企业很少有机会获得贷款;其消费者的大部分没有信用卡,也不需要信贷。电子商务公司是投资物流、帮助商户借贷和为消费者提供新的支付工具。AmitAgarwal,负责运营
印度亚马逊,寄希望于”我们实际上可能变成一种改变印度的催化剂:印度的购买方式、印度的销售方式,甚至改变生活方式。”

The Logical Indian于2013年由Abhishek
Mazumdar作为Facebook页面创建。通过这个页面,Abhishek
Mazumdar提供未被大众媒体报道或忽略的突出新闻和消息。The Logical
Indian定期报道往往被传统媒体忽视的各种社会问题和文化,耸人听闻的新闻和消息。

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王冠上的宝石

亚马逊希望将印度打造为仅次于美国的第二大市场。

尽管此时,仅有12%的市场占有率,它远落后于本地成长起来的企业,Flipkart
(45%) ,Snapdeal (26%)。

以上三家企业,以及一些较小的竞争对手,支出速度惊人。

随着全球市场萎靡和硅谷独角兽的绊倒,国际资金枯竭的情况使之成为可能。

怀疑公司目前计划的可持续性被强调,在2 月26
日,一家摩根士丹利(morganstanley)
的共同基金,特别为此风险——将其在flipkart 公司股权的价值,减记27%。

对大量投递员来说,改变印度的语气可能是一种欺骗,而它不是因为好逸恶劳。

印度的远见者通过回忆中国的案例保持斗志。

从2010年到2014年,中国的电子商务增长了近600%,使这个国家今天成为世界上最大的电子商务市场。

这在很大程度上得益于土著公司的成长:强大的亚马逊只能咬在本土巨头阿里巴巴和JD.com;eBay
都已经离开了舞台。

而在这个过程中,中国顶尖的电子商务公司提供服务的范围大得惊人。

阿里巴巴,成立由马云于1999 年,如今市值美元1840亿,提供了最好的例证。

为了平息公众对网上购物的忧虑,阿里巴巴创建了支付宝,代管持有购物者的付款,直到他收到他的订单。

该工具已经演变成金融服务公司,蚂蚁金融,去年服务超过400
万支付宝账户,超过2 亿美元贷款给小企业和企业家。

为中国消费者提供外国商品进入该公司的服务包括但不限于:市场营销、运输和海关的帮助。

阿里巴巴现在为偏远的地区建设服务中心,在那里购物者可以预定,收货和出售货物,以及支付他们的账单。

这是一个长远步骤,表明它的企图不仅在于从中国人的消费增长中受益,还要塑造和加速这一进程。

从已经成功的案例中可以看出,电子商务企业越早介入一个国家的发展,它能发挥的作用可能就越宽。

对电子商务来说,印度在许多方面是比中国更严格市场。

它的人口更贫穷,它的基础设施更糟。但其前景看起来也引人注目。

人均收入,2014 年是$1,570,到2025年可能达到两倍。

三分之二的印度人不到35岁,其中通过手机访问互联网的人数非常庞大。

在2014 年12
月智能手机已经占印度手机的五分之一,根据高盛的数据。仅仅是六个月后,就达到了四分之一(见图表1)。

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图表1

摩根士丹利预计互联网渗透率从2015年的32%上升到2020年的59%。到了2030年,印度预计将成为一亿人规模的数码市场。

增长到接近中国规模,第二大市场前景吸引了那些获得首轮融资的企业。

鲍勃
·范戴克,Naspers首席执行官,一家南非公司,支持JD.com和腾讯(中国最大的社交媒体公司),说他寻找人口众多、智能手机的使用刚兴起,并且缺乏零售连锁店的地区投资。印度,在商场、超市和品牌的连锁店,或分析师所称的”有组织的零售”,只是10%左右完全符合条件。

 

对福克斯一掷千金的押注,使迪士尼拥有了一个庞大的电视网络,并在印度这个人口超10亿的市场上成为领先的视频流媒体服务商。

中间商

Naspers在Flipkart
公司拥有17%的股份;其他JD.com投资者亦支持本公司,包括纽约的老虎基金,一个俄罗斯的基金-DST全球。

日本的软银,阿里巴巴的大投资者,自2013
年开始支持Snapdeal,阿里巴巴本身也在去年8 月跟投。

同时阿里巴巴的蚂蚁金融在印度的Paytm,拥有20%的股份,并开始作为一个移动钱包公司与Snapdeal和flipkart
公司同在一个在线的市场竞争。

这三家公司市值加起来的几乎达到250亿美元。

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印度主要电商

与那些试图复制其在中国成功的投资者,亚马逊正在寻求弥补了它的失败。

为了减少去年到阿里巴巴的天猫网站上开店的耻辱,杰夫贝佐斯确定,这一次,积累了更多经验,而且是在更加开放的市场,局面将会不同。

Flipkart 公司成立于2007 年,当时亚马逊是它的榜样。

该公司开始为一家书店;两个工程师开启了它,萨尔萨钦和萨尔宾尼(不相关),曾经在亚马逊工作。

贝佐斯先生,虽然,他的意见是如果任何人如果想成为印度亚马逊,它应该是亚马逊。

在2014 年,flipkart
公司宣布获得10亿美元的投资后不久,贝佐斯先生穿上在班加罗尔的印度服饰,搭乘彩虹色卡车,交给Agarwal先生一张$20亿的支票。

这家公司2015年营业收入超过1000亿美元,因此股东们大约有更多的利润可以如此慷慨援助。

无论Flipkart
公司、亚马逊,或任何其他大的竞争对手都是跟随亚马逊在西方成功的零售战略。

印度法律规定外资电子商务公司不得拥有库存,这种情况下作为一个简单的零售商就不可能了。

因此印度顶尖的电子商务公司看起来更像阿里巴巴模式。

Flipkart
公司已经成为一个集市:卖家提供一切东西,从移动电话到洗衣机到手袋。Snapdeal、亚马逊和Paytm也是。

公司狂热地打价格战,打折正在吞噬他们自己的利润。长远来看,他们必须通过精细化服务,提高自己在卖家和消费者中的识别度,并向更多的印度人提供更好、更广泛的产品。

实现这一目标的第一步是增加平台公司上的卖家—
—卖家,毕竟,他们将支付佣金和航运费用。

所以公司提供一系列的服务来吸引企业到他们的网站。

Flipkart
公司的方案包括:教卖家如何管理销售高峰,通过排灯节(印度节日)掌握时尚品牌的趋势和生产。

在2
月亚马逊发布了一个在轮子上的旅行工作室,提供培训、摄影和其他服务,以帮助商户走到线上。

但他们提供的最重要帮助是放宽信贷。

小企业,仅能给的少量的财务报表和有限的信用历史,长久以来从印度的银行获得贷款的非常困难。

他们常常依靠从邻居或家人获得昂贵的贷款。

电子商务公司有强烈的动机,使他们更好地提供信贷 —
—因为他们有权访问在线销售数据,他们处于有利的地位,可用以帮助贷款人判断信用风险。

以SumitAgarwal为例(和亚马逊的加瓦没有关系),一个年轻的企业家,在2011
年开始在线制鞋企业。

在他新德里的仓库里,工人在鞋盒堆积的高塔中间打包、扫描。

早期的不确定性;他的家人开始时反对开公司,他说,是”见鬼!这家伙在做什么?”
  如今在首都,这种企业家寻求资本借以生长,要容易多了。

当Agarwal先生登录到他在亚马逊印度上的卖方帐户,他的屏幕上列出了能提供的短期贷款,其费率根据他的交易数据计算得出。

其他电子商务公司有类似的计划。在一月Snapdeal宣布印度国家银行会立即批准高达37,000
美元贷款,如果它认可Snapdeal对借款人提供的数据。

一旦一个网站拥有卖家,第二个挑战是帮助消费者购买他们的商品。

阿尼尔需要在他的路线上携带一个笨重的信用卡读卡器,但大多数人付现金。

电子商务网站想要改变这一现状。Paytm允许客户将钱添加到数字钱包,然后被用于在线购物、手机充值、借钱给一个朋友,支付一份帐单或使用类似超级出租车的服务。它有1.2亿数字钱包账户,近六倍于印度的信用卡数量。

Snapdeal4月份买了它自己的移动支付公司。今年 2
月,亚马逊购买在线支付服务。

2、YourStory

收购福克斯的大部分股份之后,迪斯尼将在印度赢得7亿多新观众。这个数字,据福克斯旗下的
Star India
network表示,是其通过60多个体育、娱乐和新闻电视频道所覆盖的观众人数。

微妙的平衡

如果消费者购买产品,接下来的任务就是投递它。交付本身不是什么新鲜事。

印度人很久以前就有当地的送货员 Kirana 收到一罐黄油—
—主宰印度零售的街头小店。

但能够提供更大的规模是一项挑战。该国的邮件服务,印度邮政,装备不良,等待顾客试穿衣服和思考返回它。

因此新进场者都在建设网络。但印度的交通混乱如地狱,地址也含糊不清。

一个名为Delhivery的公司已经启动,聘请超过15,000的工作人员,从研究员到高管都是从Facebook和顶级顾问公司挖来的。

其总部设在古尔冈,可以让一批工程师集中在一起,远离外界干扰,疯狂地敲键盘。

Delhivery,配合大量的电子商务公司,利用机器学习来细分印度的邮政编码,以更好地在地图上标记特殊的目的地。

SandeepBarasia,该公司的总经理说:”我们可以知道寺庙旁边的黄门的房子”。

本公司可以一夜之间将货物移到700(?)或小型配送中心,以避免在营业时间内通过拥挤主干道。

然后数以千计的投递男孩,全天从配送中心分发,在他们的自行车上承载超过20公斤。

电子商务公司也正在制定他们自己的解决方案。

一些投资,比如仓库,非常简单。其他人则不是这样。Flipkart
公司去年开始用孟买的著名网络dabbawallas,或午餐送货人,当他们拿起客户的午餐铁盒的时候送货。

亚马逊有一个试点项目,客户在线订购食品,让距离他们最近的 kirana送货。

总的来说,电子商务公司称,这些实验可以创建新的真正的全国市场。

Neelkanth米什拉的一家银行,瑞信指出那些道路施工,电气化和手机大大增加了农村的工资水平,以及对商品的需求(见图表2)。

图片 7

Flipkart
公司说,其约一半的销售额来自印度境外的大城市。Snapdeal声称超过60%。它最近推出了七个区域语言版本的网站。

他们建立了市场公司向小企业提供援助。

“亚马逊网站上的一些大卖家在班加罗尔一个角落里只有一家商店;他们乐于卖到每个商店周围的五公里,”亚马逊的Agarwal先生说到。

“现在他们航运订单到克什米尔和印度东部。”亚马逊正在帮助超过印度中小企业出口。

Snapdeal
的若斯特沙利文巴尔同样乐观:”我们追求的是帮助印度的小企业规模扩大的同时,实现社会、经济和地理的卓越平衡。”

这些大胆的计划事实上还有两个顽固的阴影。

第一,消费折扣,营销活动和新的招聘意味着公司并无任何赚钱。

访问任何公司的大厅,你会看到成群的求职者。像阿尼尔一样的投递男孩子是抢手货—
—在其分支机构的最高执行者,他挣的钱约14,000卢比(约合200 美元)每个月。

图片 8

可以预见的是,亚马逊远超其竞争对手。

去年的销售额是其损失的三分之二大小。阿加瓦尔先生并不介意缺乏利润。”增长优先,”他解释道。

AnkitNagori,Flipkart
公司的首席商务官说,他的公司的最重要指标不是利润率而是新客户数、他们多久购物,他们买多少和交货速度。”如果你为解决这四件事,”他争辩说,”然后总收入和账面利润将会步入正轨”。

图片 9

而印度,正是全球最火热的媒体市场之一。根据Media Partners
Asia的预测,到2023年印度的电视和数字视频市场规模将达到24亿美元。

更多的投递员

第二个问题是监管。

拥有库存的代价是禁止外资公司。企业在他们的网站仅能实现有限的产品质量控制,摩根士丹利(morganstanley)帕拉古普塔指出,他们不能精简该国的分散的供应链。Flipkart
公司已成为相互关联的实体,包括一家控股公司在新加坡,在追求利润最大化同时要遵守印度的规则。

尽管如此,印度政府可能受到贸易保护主义压力。

传统零售商称在线市场无视对外国直接投资规则。Facebook最近废置了计划为印度人提供免费的互联网服务,包括其自身,引起了关于”数字殖民主义”风险的轩然大波。

线下零售商正在聚精会神地看着这一切。

Kiranas是相对地保护,感谢较低的税收法案和有限的持有的成本(他们存储很少)。大商店和商场是另一个故事(见图表3)。

图片 10

图表3

“令我关注的是在很短的时间,电子商务已占据一半的有组织的市场,”波士顿咨询集团的Abheek说。

“两年跌落这条线,三年跌落这条线,电子商务市场将更庞大。”

大型外国零售商— — 如宜家,瑞典家具公司,年后的混乱最后可能开放印度的商店
— — 不能直接在线销售。

事项简单为印度零售商,但他们的路线依然是多云。信实工业企业集团,超过1
万平方米的车间,规划了自己的电子商务创业。未来组,开创了我国大型超市,舾装小店主和企业家与数字目录,以便消费者可以订购未来集团产品在那里永远不会有的地方一家商店。然而该公司已经缩放回一些电子商务及其更雄心勃勃的计划。”你做的越多销售,你会失去更多的钱,”缪斯对此感兴趣,未来集团创始人。”你需要有持续的资金资助和人家背你”。

其时,大公司的部门有那些需求得到满足。”你必须有足够深的口袋,至少三个,可能四个大玩家”说先生进行。”它会打很高的成本”。阿里巴巴和亚马逊这样的公司看看那作为值得付出部分,因为,正如他们应用他们在中国和印度学到的了,所以它们将使用其印度的经验在他们进入下一个市场的成本。阿里巴巴,不满足于回Paytm和Snapdeal,也直接在印度企业试图拉拢。在12
月,它说它将有助于印度公司融资与物流,所以他们可能会使用阿里巴巴的平台,出口到中国和超越。最终,马英九喜欢说,任何一个消费者应该能够从任何卖方,在世界任何地方购买。那些购买的越多,经历了一个他的公司,越好。

Matters 是原始的印度零售商,但是它们的路线并不明朗。

Reliance工业企业集团, 拥有超过1
万平方米的车间,规划了自己的电子商务创业。

未来集团,开创了这个国家的大型超市,为小店主和企业家提供数字目录,以便消费者无论在那里,都可以订购未来集团产品。然而该公司已经压缩了一些电子商务及其更雄心勃勃的计划。”你做的越多销售,你会失去更多的钱,”缪斯对此感兴趣,未来集团创始人。”你需要有持续的资金资助和众人支持”。

与此同时,这个行业的大公司也将面临一些问题。

“你必须有足够深的口袋,至少三个,可能是四个大玩家” 辛格先生说。

“它会产生很高的成本”。阿里巴巴和亚马逊这样的公司会评估那些成本是否值得付出,因为,正如他们应用他们在中国和印度学到的,它们将使用其印度的经验当他们进入下一个市场的时候。阿里巴巴,不满足于仅仅持有Paytm和Snapdeal,也在试图直接拉拢印度企业。

在12
月,它说它将有助于印度公司融资与物流,如果它们使用阿里巴巴的平台,出口到中国或更多地方。

最终,马云喜欢说,任何一个消费者应该能够从任何卖方,在世界任何地方购买。通过他的公司购买的越多,越多好处。

与此同时,面对这些无处不在的巨头,本土企业家希望他们本地的触觉会给他们划定边缘,并寻找海外投资者支持他们。

其中许多人将会失败:印度在它之前还不能提供给一个例子,如何赚取利润,而且它可能需要很长的时间。

但只要其中一些努力生存下去,他们将为速度进步和创新,在市场中发展壮大。

正如亚马逊的先生阿格沃尔说,”如果数以百万计的小、中型企业在那里,制造商和零售商,能将他们的产品卖到世界任何地方—
— 这就是转型。”

YourStory于2008年由Shradha
Sharma推出的一个印度最重要的内容分享网站之一,网站主要讲述印度著名企业家故事。YourStory一直是许多企业和企业家的网络和连接业务目的平台。YourStory成功地传达超过15000名企业家和创业公司的故事。目前,网站每月流量超过500万,一些主要合作伙伴包括谷歌,亚马逊,戴尔,高通等。

BMI Research的技术分析师Kenny
Liew表示:“将印度之星收入囊中,将使迪士尼在背靠内容的同时,坐拥印度最受欢迎的流媒体平台赋能,从而在市场上获得更强大的立足点。”

Online retailing in India  

 

科技咨询公司Counterpoint
Research的数据显示,截至2017年底,当时还在福克斯旗下的Hotstar流媒体服务每月拥有7500万活跃用户。作为对比,Netflix在印度拥有500万用户,亚马逊Prime
Video拥有1100万用户。

The great race

In the next 15 years, India will see more people come online than any
other country. E-commerce firms are in a frenzied battle for their
custom

Mar 5th 2016

IT IS a quiet morning on the outskirts of Mumbai, the air still mild.
Dusty streets are dappled with sunlight, a stray dog rummages through
some rubbish, the shutters are lifted on a few tiny shops. A man pushes
a cart bearing a pyramid of oranges. And a delivery boy named Anil is
already racing along his route on a motor bike borrowed from his uncle,
his delivery backpack as large as he is. He has been up for hours,
planning his route and carefully filling his bag with the packages to be
dropped off first stacked near the top.

Anil enters a block of flats, squeezes his backpack into a narrow lift
and delivers a shirt to a 21-year-old taxi driver. In a neighbouring
tower he hands a smartphone case to a 16-year-old who uses several apps
to do the shopping for his family. A short ride away, a 78-year-old
grandmother is a particularly pleased customer—with help from her
grandson, she has bought some clay pickling jars that she couldn’t find
elsewhere and some high-quality saris at a knock-down price. For Anil,
it is gruelling work. But he is betting that e-commerce in India has
nowhere to go but up, and he wants to ride up with it. In the next 15
years India will see more people come online than any other country.
Last year e-commerce sales were about $16 billion; by 2020, according to
Morgan Stanley, a bank, the online retail market could be more than
seven times larger. Such sales are expected to grow faster in India than
in any other market. This has attracted a flood of investment in
e-commerce firms, the impact of which may go far beyond just displacing
offline retail.

India’s small businesses have limited access to loans; most of its
consumers do not have credit cards, or for that matter credit. The
e-commerce companies are investing in logistics, helping merchants
borrow and giving consumers new tools to pay for goods. Amit Agarwal,
who runsAmazon.in, holds
out the hope that “We could actually be a catalyst to transform India:
how India buys, how India sells, and even transform lives.”

The jewel in the crown

Amazon wants to make India its second-biggest market, after America. For
the time being, though, with just 12% of the market, it lags behind the
home-grown successes, Flipkart (45%) and Snapdeal (26%). All three, as
well as some smaller competitors, are spending at a blistering rate. As
global markets dip and Silicon Valley unicorns stumble, the
international funding that makes this possible may dry up. Doubts about
the sustainability of the companies’ present plans were underlined when,
on February 26th, one of Morgan Stanley’s mutual funds marked down the
value of its stake in Flipkart by 27%. If the prospect of changing India
a billion deliveries at a time is a beguiling one, it is not for the
faint-hearted.

India’s visionaries keep their spirits up by remembering the example of
China. Chinese e-commerce grew by nearly 600% between 2010 and 2014,
making the country the biggest e-commerce market in the world today. It
managed this largely through the growth of indigenous companies: mighty
Amazon merely nips at the heels of home-grown giants Alibaba
andJD.com; eBay has all but
left the stage. And in the process China’s top e-commerce firms came to
offer an astonishing range of services.

Alibaba, founded by Jack Ma in 1999 and now valued at $184 billion,
provides the best illustration. To calm anxieties about buying online
Alibaba created Alipay, which holds a shopper’s payment in escrow until
he receives his order. The tool has evolved into a financial-services
company, Ant Financial, which last year serviced more than 400m Alipay
accounts and made over 2m loans to small businesses and entrepreneurs.
To provide Chinese consumers with access to foreign goods the firm’s
services include not just online listings but marketing, shipping and
help with customs.

Alibaba is now building service centres in remote areas where shoppers
can order, pick up and sell goods, as well as pay their bills. It is a
further step in its attempts not merely to benefit from the growth in
Chinese consumption, but to shape and accelerate it. The degree to which
it has succeeded suggests that the earlier an e-commerce company arrives
in a country’s development, the wider its role might be.

India is in many ways a tougher market for e-commerce than China. Its
population is poorer and its infrastructure worse. But its prospects
look remarkable. Income per person, which in 2014 was $1,570, could be
twice that by 2025. Two-thirds of Indians are younger than 35, and their
phones give a huge number of them access to the internet. In December
2014 smartphones accounted for one in five Indian mobiles, according to
Goldman Sachs. Just six months later, they accounted for one in four
(see chart 1). Morgan Stanley expects internet penetration to rise from
32% in 2015 to 59% in 2020. By 2030, India is projected to be a
one-billion-person digital market.

The prospect of a second market growing to a near-Chinese size attracts
those who made a packet the first time round. Bob van Dijk, the chief
executive of Naspers, a South African firm that backed
 JD.com and Tencent,
China’s largest social-media company, says he looks for countries with
big populations, rising smartphone use and few retail chains. India,
where malls, supermarkets and branded chains, or what analysts call
“organised retail”, account for just 10% or so of the total market, fits
the bill perfectly.

The middlemen

Naspers owns a 17% stake in Flipkart; other
JD.com investors, including
Tiger Global Management, in New York, and DST Global, a Russian fund,
have also backed the company. Japan’s SoftBank, a big investor in
Alibaba, has backed Snapdeal since 2013, and Alibaba itself followed
suit last August. Meanwhile Alibaba’s Ant Financial owns a 20% stake in
India’s Paytm, which began as a mobile-wallet company and now competes
with Snapdeal and Flipkart as an online marketplace. The three firms
have a combined valuation of almost $25 billion.

In contrast to those investors trying to recapitulate their Chinese
success, Amazon is seeking to make up for its failure. Reduced last year
to the ignominy of having to open a shop on Alibaba’s Tmall site, Jeff
Bezos is determined that this time, with more experience and in a more
open market, things will be different.

When Flipkart was founded, in 2007, Amazon was obviously its model. The
company began as a bookseller; the two engineers who started it, Sachin
Bansal and Binny Bansal (not related), had worked for Amazon. Mr Bezos,
though, is of the opinion that if anyone if going to be the Amazon of
India, it should be Amazon. In 2014, shortly after Flipkart announced a
$1 billion round of funding, Mr Bezos donned Indian clothes in
Bangalore, hopped aboard a rainbow-coloured truck and handed Mr Agarwal
a $2 billion cheque. A firm which earned over $100 billion in 2015 and
has shareholders content to see more or less nothing by way of profits
can afford such largesse.

Neither Flipkart, Amazon, nor any of the other big competitors are
following the retail strategy that led to Amazon’s success in the West.
Indian regulations bar foreign-backed e-commerce firms from owning
inventory, and so acting as a straightforward retailer is not an option.
As a result India’s top e-commerce companies look much more like
Alibaba. Flipkart has become a marketplace where sellers offer
everything from mobile phones to washing machines to handbags. Snapdeal,
Amazon and Paytm run marketplaces too. The firms compete feverishly on
price, offering discounts that chomp away their own margins. In the long
term, they must differentiate themselves by honing services for sellers
and shoppers alike, and offering a better, broader range of products to
more Indians than would have them otherwise.

The first step to that goal is to boost the number of sellers on the
company’s platform—it is the sellers, after all, who pay commissions and
shipping fees. So companies offer a range of services to lure businesses
to their sites. Flipkart’s programmes range from teaching sellers how to
manage peak sales duringdiwalito advising fashion brands on trends and
production. In February Amazon announced a travelling studio-on-wheels,
offering training, photography and other services to help shop-owners
come online.

But the most important help they offer is in easing access to credit.
Small businesses, given their scarce financial statements and limited
credit history, have long had trouble obtaining loans from India’s
banks. They often rely on expensive loans from neighbours or family. The
e-commerce companies have strong incentives to make them better
offers—and because they have access to online-sales data they are in a
privileged position from which to help lenders judge credit risk.

Take Sumit Agarwal (no relation to Amazon’s Mr Agarwal), a young
entrepreneur who started an online shoe business in 2011. In his
warehouse in New Delhi workers pack and scan shipments among towers of
shoeboxes. The early days were uncertain; his family’s reaction when the
firm started, he says, was “What the hell is this guy doing?” Now it is
easier for such entrepreneurs to find the capital with which to grow.
When Mr Agarwal logs into his seller’s account
onAmazon.inhis screen
offers a column of short-term loans, their rates calculated using data
from his transactions. Other e-commerce firms have similar schemes. In
January Snapdeal announced that the State Bank of India would approve
loans of up to $37,000 instantly if it liked the look of the data that
Snapdeal provided on the borrower.

Once a site has sellers, the second challenge is to help consumers buy
their wares. Anil carries a clunky credit-card reader with him on his
rounds, but most people pay cash. The e-commerce sites want to change
that. Paytm lets customers add money to a digital wallet that can then
be used to shop online, top up a mobile phone, lend money to a friend,
pay a bill or use a service such as an Uber taxi. It has 120m
digital-wallet accounts, nearly six times India’s number of credit
cards. Snapdeal bought its own mobile payments company in April. Amazon
purchased an online-payments service in February.

A fine balance

If a consumer does buy a product, the next task is delivering it.
Delivery itself is nothing new. Indians have long been able to have a
delivery boy from the localkirana—the cornershops that dominate Indian
retail—bring them a stick of butter. But being able to deliver on a
larger scale is a challenge. The country’s mail service, India Post, is
ill-equipped to wait while a shopper tries on akurtaand ponders
returning it. So newcomers are building networks. But India’s traffic is
hellish and its addresses vague.

A startup named Delhivery has hired more than 15,000 staff, from
developers to executives poached from Facebook and posh consultancies.
Its headquarters in Gurgaon are so packed that engineers spill onto an
outdoor porch, tapping their keyboards furiously. Delhivery, which works
with a number of e-commerce firms, is using machine learning to
subdivide India’s postcodes, the better to map idiosyncratic
descriptions. “We’ll know the house with the yellow door next to the
temple,” says Sandeep Barasia, the managing director. The company moves
goods to 700 or so small distribution centres overnight to avoid
congested main roads during business hours. Thousands of delivery boys
then dash to and from the distribution centres throughout the day,
bearing more than 20 kilos on their bikes.

E-commerce companies are devising their own solutions, too. Some
investments, such as warehouses, are straightforward. Others are less
so. Flipkart last year began using Mumbai’s famous network
ofdabbawallas, or lunch-delivery men, to drop off packages when they
picked up customers’ lunch tins. Amazon has a pilot programme that lets
customers order groceries online and have them delivered from the
nearestkirana.

Together, e-commerce firms say, these experiments could create a new
truly national marketplace. Neelkanth Mishra of Credit Suisse, a bank,
points out that road construction, electrification and mobile phones
have stoked big increases in rural wages, and thus demand for goods (see
chart 2). Flipkart says that about half its sales come from outside
India’s big cities. Snapdeal claims more than 60%. It recently launched
seven regional-language versions of its website.

As they build out their markets the firms trumpet their assistance to
small businesses. “Some of the big sellers on Amazon only had a shop in
a corner of Bangalore; they were happy selling to five kilometres around
each shop,” declares Amazon’s Mr Agarwal. “Now they are shipping orders
to Kashmir and eastern India.” Amazon is helping more than 6,000 Indian
businesses export, as well. Snapdeal’s Kunal Bahl is equally expansive:
“Our ambition is to be a great social, economic and geographic equaliser
for the small businesses of India as they scale up.”

All these bold plans are clouded by two obstinate facts. First, spending
on discounts, marketing campaigns and new hires means none of the
companies has yet made money. Visit any firm’s lobby and you will meet
herds of job applicants. Delivery boys like Anil are in hot demand—a top
performer in his branch, he earns about 14,000 rupees ($200) each month.

Amazon is, predictably, outspending its competitors. Last year its sales
were two-thirds the size of its losses. Mr Agarwal is not bothered by a
lack of profit. “The priority is growth,” he explains. Ankit Nagori,
Flipkart’s chief business officer, says that the most important metrics
for his company are not margins but the number of new customers, how
often they shop, how much they buy and the speed of delivery. “If you
solve for these four things,” he contends, “then the top line and bottom
line will fall in place.”

A billion deliveries more

The second problem is regulatory. Forbidding foreign-backed firms from
owning inventory has costs. Companies have limited control over the
quality of products on their sites, points out Morgan Stanley’s Parag
Gupta, and they can do little to streamline the country’s fragmented
supply chain. Flipkart has become a tangle of interlinked entities,
including a holding company in Singapore, in an attempt to obey India’s
rules while maximising profits.

India’s government may nonetheless come under protectionist pressure.
Traditional retailers allege that the online marketplaces flout rules
against foreign direct investment. Facebook’s recently scuttled plan to
offer Indians free internet services, including its own, sparked a
furore over the risks of “digital colonialism”.

Offline retailers are watching all this intently.Kiranasare relatively
protected, thanks to meagre tax bills and limited carrying costs (they
store little). Big shops and malls are another story (see chart 3).
“What is remarkable for me is that in a very short time, e-commerce has
become half of what the organised market is,” says Abheek Singhi of the
Boston Consulting Group. “Two years down the line, three years down the
line, the e-commerce market could be larger.”

Big foreign retailers—such as Ikea, a Swedish furniture company, which
after years of kerfuffle may finally be opening an Indian store—cannot
sell directly online. Matters are simpler for Indian retailers, but
their course remains cloudy. Reliance Industries, a conglomerate with
over 1m square metres of shop floor, is planning its own e-commerce
venture. Future Group, which pioneered hypermarkets in the country, is
outfitting small shop-owners and entrepreneurs with digital catalogues
so that consumers can order Future Group products in places where there
will never be a store. However the firm has scaled back some of its more
ambitious plans for e-commerce. “The more sales you do, the more money
you lose,” muses Kishore Biyani, Future Group’s founder. “You need to
have continuous funding and someone to back you.”

For the time being, the big companies in the sector are having those
needs met. “You have at least three, potentially four large players with
deep enough pockets,” says Mr Singhi. “It’s going to play out at a very
high cost.” Companies like Alibaba and Amazon see that cost as worth
paying in part because, just as they applied what they learned in China
to India, so they will use their Indian experience in the next markets
they move into. Alibaba, not content to back Paytm and Snapdeal, is also
courting Indian businesses directly. In December it said it would help
Indian firms with financing and logistics so they might use Alibaba’s
platforms to export to China and beyond. Eventually, Mr Ma likes to say,
any consumer should be able to buy from any seller, anywhere in the
world. The more of those purchases go through one of his firms, the
better.

And everywhere these giants go, home-grown entrepreneurs will be hoping
that their local acumen will give them an edge and looking for overseas
investors to back them. Many of them will fail: India does not yet offer
an example of how to make a profit, and it may be a long time before it
does. But as long as some of these efforts survive, they will serve to
speed progress, and innovation, in developing markets. As Amazon’s Mr
Agarwal says, “If millions of small, medium enterprises out there,
manufacturers and retailers, can…sell their product anywhere in the
world—that’s transformational.”

译者注

top line : 财务上指总收入

bottom line :财务上指利润

the organized market :未确定

3、ScoopWhoop

此外,福克斯的电影制作业务Fox Star
Studios,通过以印度一些大明星为主角的宝莱坞电影,向数以百万计的观众提供服务。

图片 11

华尔街研究公司MoffettNathanson估计,到2020年,Star的息税折旧及摊销前利润将达到8.26亿美元,比本财年增长91%。福克斯自己预计,2018财年,该公司将获得5亿美元的Ebitda收入,到2020年,这一数值将增至10亿美元。

ScoopWhoop是一个顶级内容分享网站之一,它可以让企业以惊人的速度获得品牌形象。每月访问网站的用户数量接近2500万,网站里拥有很多很酷的分享信息。ScoopWhoop主要针对青年提供各种策划故事和内容,以及还包括电影,体育,政治的各种新闻和信息。

根据志象网(The
Passage)之前的报道(“爱奇艺”和“优酷”之争,在这里上演),Star
India旗下的OTT平台Hotstar于2015年2月横空出世。彼时,印度的流媒体大战已经揭开序幕,众多国际流媒体服务开始进入印度。2016年1月,Netflix在印度落地,这是其大规模国际扩张的一部分;同年11月,亚马逊带着有十年以上成熟经验的Prime
Video服务进入印度。

 

2018年,印度的在线视频用户达到2.25亿,毕马威预计在未来五年内,这一数字将翻一番,达到5.5亿,这比美国总人口(在线视频用户数量为2.275亿)多出67%。

4、All India Bakchod

据普华永道在一份对全球娱乐和媒体展望的报告中的估计,美国的电视和家庭视频市场总额超过1000亿美元,但正在萎缩。印度的市场规模只有美国的十分之一,但仍在增长。

图片 12

在围绕新内容的激烈竞争下,新兴市场已成为巨头们业务较为核心的驱动之一。根据Media
Partners
Asia的预测,到2023年印度的电视和数字视频市场规模将达到24亿美元。

All India Bakchod是Youtube著名的播客频道,目标受众主要是青少年。All
India
Bakchod通过喜剧表演与幽默的形式来展现印度的社会和经济元素。作为顶级内容分享网站之一,All
India Bakchod已经获得巨大成功,它是第一个拥有超过100万关注者的印度频道。

图片 13

 

2018年5月,小米也在孟买召开Mi Pop新闻发布会,宣布在印度推出Mi Music、Mi
Video流媒体服务。小米声称Mi Video
App拥有的内容时长超过50万小时,当中的80%可以免费观看。

5、MensXP

对于迪士尼、Netflix和亚马逊来说,在无法进入唯一一个比印度更大的市场——中国时,抢占印度市场尤其重要。BMI
Research的分析师Kenny
Liew称,“印度是一个巨大的市场,迪士尼肯定会持续看好这个市场的增长。”

图片 14

Netflix创始人兼首席执行官Reed
Hastings也曾公开表示,Netflix的下一个1亿用户将来自印度。

MensXP是印度一个顶级内容分享网站之一,它本质上是一个生活网站。网站提供的内容包括博客,图像,视频,GIF图片和其他DIY东西。MensXP于2009年由Angad
Bhatia创建。直到成立的第二年,网站才获得相当数量的用户。网站涉及健康,时尚,美容,运动和娱乐等主题。

然而,自2016年推出以来,Netflix一直难以在印度获得市场份额,仅占据了1.4%的视频流媒体市场,而亚马逊Prime则占据了5%。

图片 15

对于印度观众来说,Netflix太贵了,内容不够“本地”。像印度这样的新兴市场的受众对价格非常敏感。Netflix的费用是印度当地有线电视公司的两倍,这使得Netflix难以获得市场份额,尽管其拥有高质量的节目。

而Hotstar提供的在线流媒体服务,可以通过应用程序或网站观看Star
India频道的所有节目。许多节目可以通过Hotstar应用程序在手机上下载。它通过广告和高级会员来赚取收入。

除了有付费订阅模式来专门为富裕人群和国际化人群提供服务外,Hotstar还依托广告实现了80%的内容免费,从而以此满足最广大用户的需求。

说到这里,又不得不提到一个人。

在印度,玩家们可以从印度智能手机的蓬勃发展中受益,将其内容带给数亿尚未上网的印度人。

这一方面是得益于来自中国的低成本手机的涌入,印度智能手机的普及率大幅上升。而另一方面,印度电信公司的资费大战则加速了互联网的普及。2016年,印度富翁穆凯什·安巴尼投资225亿美元,推出电信巨头Reliance
Jio,通过提供最低价的数据资费计划,将互联网普及到普通大众人群和家庭。

而印度首富引发的价格战导致移动数据价格暴跌,让更多印度人能用智能手机上网。据Star
India称,观看Hotstar视频的时间90%以上是在移动设备上。

Hotstar主打移动设备,针对的是许多依靠手机娱乐的人,每月有1.5亿活跃用户。在Hotstar上,大约80%的内容是免费的,如果要订阅好莱坞电影和电视节目,月费只有199卢比,订阅直播体育节目的月费只有299卢比。

过去两年来,随着手机流量费用的下降,印度消费者的手机数据使用量大幅增加,Hotstar也由此受益,用户暴增。根据分析公司App
Annie的数据,在印度的iPhone和Android系统的流媒体视频下载方面,Hotstar仅次于YouTube。Star
India高管Uday
Shankar表示,“在印度,对很多人来说,他们的首次屏幕体验都是在移动端。”

图片 16

Media Partners
Asia的数据显示,印度的13亿人口中,通过手机连接高速互联网的比例从2017年的24%飙升至今年的36%,预计到2023年,这一比例将攀升至58%。

印度商学院(Indian School of Business)副院长兼市场营销学教授Siddharth
Shekhar Singh表示:“迪士尼可能会在所有能接触消费者的渠道上加强影响力。”

与此同时,尽管Star
India将在印度的智能手机市场大力推动迪士尼,但通过印度数以百万计的电视屏幕,它的影响力将会更大。Star
India表示,每十个印度家庭中,有九个通过有线或卫星连接收看其节目,或者说,有大约1.4亿家庭收看其节目。

Star
India花费数十亿美元购买了一些印度最大型体育赛事的转播权,包括印度举国痴迷的板球项目,从而打造了庞大的观众群。

2017年9月,Star
India击败了Facebook和索尼等科技媒体巨头,以26亿美元的价格获得2018至2022年度印度板球超级联赛(Indian
Premier
League)的全球媒体播放版权。在本赛季的头三周,印度超级联赛吸引了近5亿人观看。

2018年5月,Star
India又以9.4亿美元的价格打败竞拍对手索尼娱乐电视公司(Sony Entertainment
Television)和印度电信巨头Reliance
Jio,获得了从2018年到2023年在印度举行的所有国际板球比赛的全球电视和数字版权。

印度业内评论认为,这将进一步加强Star
India对印度风行且赚钱的体育项目的控制,并提升Hotstar内容的吸引力。

图片 17

该流媒体网络的另一个巨大优势,是其支持的语言范围。Star
India的电视和数字频道覆盖了英语和印度近24种语言中的7种。近几个月来,Netflix和亚马逊已经开始播放更多的印度本土语言内容,但Star
India可以让迪士尼立即获得优势。

BMI
Research的Liew表示:“本地化内容仍然是市场增长的关键驱动力,而且肯定仍将是迪士尼的重点。”

美国有线电视供应商康卡斯特(Comcast,
CCZ)之前曾在中途参与了对福克斯竞价,于是迪士尼把价格提升到了713亿美元(迪士尼对福克斯的收购案最早定于2017年12月,当时的竞价是迪士尼以524亿美元的价格收购21世纪福斯的电影资产),这也是最终成交的价格。

康卡斯特横插一脚,直接让福克斯的价格上升了接近两百亿,但迪士尼仍然买买买,这不仅是财大气粗,更多的也是为长远考虑。

毕竟,拿下对福克斯的争夺战,就会使印度成为其战略规划的核心部分。

印度商学院(Indian School of
Business)的Singh表示:“鉴于相对自由的市场、英语人口以及透明的法治,印度对全球企业尤其具有吸引力。”

他补充道:“媒体和娱乐业正在高速增长。”“那么当然的,这一领域的大公司都希望成为这个增长故事的要角儿。”

志象网,见证中国科技企业全球化之路。

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