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3月27日下午,德国鲁尔-波鸿大学矿物地质地球物理研究所的高级研究员Hans-Peter Schertl为地科学院师生作了矿物岩石学相关知识讲座,学院专业课教师、硕士生以及2012、2013级本科生参加此次讲座。

Geology and Landscape

Most people consider the landscape to be unchanging, but Earth is a
dynamic body, and its surface is continually altering-slowly on the
human time scale, but relatively rapidly when compared to the great age
of Earth (about 4,500 billion years). There are two principal influences
that shape the terrain: constructive processes such as uplift, which
create new landscape features, and destructive forces such as erosion,
which gradually wear away exposed landforms.

Hills and mountains are often regarded as the epitome of permanence,
successfully resisting the destructive forces of nature, but in fact
they tend to be relatively short-lived in geological terms. As a general
rule, the higher a mountain is, the more recently it was formed; for
example, the high mountains of the Himalayas are only about 50 million
years old. Lower mountains tend to be older, and are often the eroded
relics of much higher mountain chains. About 400 million years ago, when
the present-day continents of North America and Europe were joined, the
Caledonian mountain chain was the same size as the modern Himalayas.
Today, however, the relics of the Caledonian orogeny (mountain-building
period) exist as the comparatively low mountains of Greenland, the
northern Appalachians in the United States, the Scottish Highlands, and
the Norwegian coastal plateau.

The Earth’s crust is thought to be divided into huge, movable segments,
called plates, which float on a soft plastic layer of rock. Some
mountains were formed as a result of these plates crashing into each
other and forcing up the rock at the plate margins. In this process,
sedimentary rocks that originally formed on the seabed may be folded
upwards to altitudes of more than 26,000 feet. Other mountains may be
raised by earthquakes, which fracture the Earth’s crust and can displace
enough rock to produce block mountains. A third type of mountain may be
formed as a result of volcanic activity which occurs in regions of
active fold mountain belts, such as in the Cascade Range of western
North America. The Cascades are made up of lavas and volcanic materials.
Many of the peaks are extinct volcanoes.

Whatever the reason for mountain formation, as soon as land rises above
sea level it is subjected to destructive forces. The exposed rocks are
attacked by the various weather processes and gradually broken down into
fragments, which are then carried away and later deposited as sediments.
Thus, any landscape represents only a temporary stage in the continuous
battle between the forces of uplift and those of erosion.

The weather, in its many forms, is the main agent of erosion. Rain
washes away loose soil and penetrates cracks in the rocks. Carbon
dioxide in the air reacts with the rainwater, forming a weak acid
(carbonic acid) that may chemically attack the rocks. The rain seeps
underground and the water may reappear later as springs. These springs
are the sources of streams and rivers, which cut through the rocks and
carry away debris from the mountains to the lowlands.

Under very cold conditions, rocks can be shattered by ice and frost.
Glaciers may form in permanently cold areas, and these slowly moving
masses of ice cut out valleys, carrying with them huge quantities of
eroded rock debris. In dry areas the wind is the principal agent of
erosion. It carries fine particles of sand, which bombard exposed rock
surfaces, thereby wearing them into yet more sand. Even living things
contribute to the formation of landscapes. Tree roots force their way
into cracks in rocks and, in so doing, speed their splitting. In
contrast, the roots of grasses and other small plants may help to hold
loose soil fragments together, thereby helping to prevent erosion by the
wind.

【Paragraph 1】Most people consider the landscape to be unchanging, but
Earth is a dynamic body, and its surface is continually altering-slowly
on the human time scale, but relatively rapidly when compared to the
great age of Earth (about 4,500 billion years). There are two principal
influences that shape the terrain: constructive processes such as
uplift, which create new landscape features, and destructive forces such
as erosion, which gradually wear away exposed landforms.

  1. According to paragraph 1, which of the following statements is true
    of changes in Earth’s landscape?

○They occur more often by uplift than by erosion.

○They occur only at special times.

○They occur less frequently now than they once did.

○They occur quickly in geological terms.

  1. The word “relatively”in the passage is closest in meaning to

○unusually

○comparatively

○occasionally

○naturally

【Paragraph 2】Hills and mountains are often regarded as the epitome of
permanence, successfully resisting the destructive forces of nature, but
in fact they tend to be relatively short-lived in geological terms. As a
general rule, the higher a mountain is, the more recently it was formed;
for example, the high mountains of the Himalayas are only about 50
million years old. Lower mountains tend to be older, and are often the
eroded relics of much higher mountain chains. About 400 million
years ago, when the present-day continents of North America and Europe
were joined, the Caledonian mountain chain was the same size as the
modern Himalayas. Today, however, the relics of the Caledonian orogeny
(mountain-building period) exist as the comparatively low mountains of
Greenland, the northern Appalachians in the United States, the Scottish
Highlands, and the Norwegian coastal plateau.

  1. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 2 about the
    mountains of the Himalayas?

○Their current height is not an indication of their age.

○At present, they are much higher than the mountains of the Caledonian
range.

○They were a uniform height about 400 million years ago.

○They are not as high as the Caledonian mountains were 400 million years
ago.

  1. The word “relics”in the passage is closest in meaning to

○resemblances

○regions

○remains

○restorations

【Paragraph 3】The Earth’s crust is thought to be divided into huge,
movable segments, called plates, which float on a soft plastic layer of
rock. Some mountains were formed as a result of these plates crashing
into each other and forcing up the rock at the plate margins. In this
process, sedimentary rocks that originally formed on the seabed may be
folded upwards to altitudes of more than 26,000 feet. Other mountains
may be raised by earthquakes, which fracture the Earth’s crust and can
displace enough rock to produce block mountains. A third type of
mountain may be formed as a result of volcanic activity which occurs in
regions of active fold mountain belts, such as in the Cascade Range of
western North America. The Cascades are made up of lavas and volcanic
materials. Many of the peaks are extinct volcanoes.

  1. According to paragraph 3, one cause of mountain formation is the

○effect of climatic change on sea level

○slowing down of volcanic activity

○force of Earth’s crustal plates hitting each other

○replacement of sedimentary rock with volcanic rock

【Paragraph 5】The weather, in its many forms, is the main agent of
erosion. Rain washes away loose soil and penetrates cracks in the rocks.
Carbon dioxide in the air reacts with the rainwater, forming a weak
acid (carbonic acid) that may chemically attack the rocks. The rain
seeps underground and the water may reappear later as springs. These
springs are the sources of streams and rivers, which cut through the
rocks and carry away debris from the mountains to the lowlands.

  1. Why does the author mention Carbon dioxide in the passage?

○To explain the origin of a chemical that can erode rocks

○To contrast carbon dioxide with carbonic acid

○To give an example of how rainwater penetrates soil

○To argue for the desirability of preventing erosion

  1. The word “seeps”in the passage is closest in meaning to

○dries gradually

○flows slowly

○freezes quickly

○warms slightly

【Paragraph 6】Under very cold conditions, rocks can be shattered by ice
and frost. Glaciers may form in permanently cold areas, and these slowly
moving masses of ice cut out valleys, carrying with them huge
quantities of eroded rock debris. In dry areas the wind is the principal
agent of erosion. It carries fine particles of sand, which bombard
exposed rock surfaces, thereby wearing them into yet more sand. Even
living things contribute to the formation of landscapes. Tree roots
force their way into cracks in rocks and, in so doing, speed their
splitting. In contrast, the roots of grasses and other small plants may
help to hold loose soil fragments together, thereby helping to prevent
erosion by the wind.

  1. The word themin the passage refers to

○cold areas

○masses of ice

○valleys

○rock debris

【Paragraph 2】Hills and mountains are often regarded as the epitome
of permanence, successfully resisting the destructive forces of nature,
but in fact they tend to be relatively short-lived in geological
terms.
As a general rule, the higher a mountain is, the more recently
it was formed; for example, the high mountains of the Himalayas are only
about 50 million years old. Lower mountains tend to be older, and are
often the eroded relics of much higher mountain chains. About 400
million years ago, when the present-day continents of North America and
Europe were joined, the Caledonian mountain chain was the same size as
the modern Himalayas. Today, however, the relics of the Caledonian
orogeny (mountain-building period) exist as the comparatively low
mountains of Greenland, the northern Appalachians in the United States,
the Scottish Highlands, and the Norwegian coastal plateau.

  1. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information
    in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change
    the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

○When they are relatively young, hills and mountains successfully resist
the destructive forces of nature.

○Although they seem permanent, hills and mountains exist for a
relatively short period of geological time.

○Hills and mountains successfully resist the destructive forces of
nature, but only for a short time.

○Hills and mountains resist the destructive forces of nature better than
other types of landforms.

【Paragraph 6】Under very cold conditions, rocks can be shattered by ice
and frost. Glaciers may form in permanently cold areas, and these slowly
moving masses of ice cut out valleys, carrying with them huge quantities
of eroded rock debris. ■In dry areas the wind is the principal agent of
erosion. ■It carries fine particles of sand, which bombard exposed rock
surfaces, thereby wearing them into yet more sand. ■Even living things
contribute to the formation of landscapes. ■Tree roots force their way
into cracks in rocks and, in so doing, speed their splitting. In
contrast, the roots of grasses and other small plants may help to hold
loose soil fragments together, thereby helping to prevent erosion by the
wind.

  1. According to paragraph 6, which of the following is both a cause and
    result of erosion?

○glacial activity

○rock debris

○tree roots

○sand

  1. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following
    sentence could be added to the passage.

Under different climatic conditions, another type of destructive force
contributes to erosion.

Where would the sentence best fit?

  1. 【Directions】Three of the answer choices below are used in the
    passage to illustrate constructive processes and two are used to
    illustrate destructive processes. Complete the table by matching
    appropriate answer choices to the processes they are used to illustrate.
    This question is worth 3 points.

CONSTRUCTIVE PROCESSES     DESTRUCTIVE PROCESSSES

●                                                            ●

●                                                            ●

Answer Choices

○Collision of Earth’s crustal plates

○Separation of continents

○Wind-driven sand

○Formation of grass roots in soil

○Earthquakes

○Volcanic activity

○Weather processes

10月26日,广州爱莎外籍人员子女学校初一至初三年级50多名师生,来到中国科学院广州地球化学研究所地学与资源科普基地标本馆,开展地球化学相关课程学习,广州地化所为学生们提供双语讲解。

Hans-Peter Schertl从Important silicate minerals(重要的硅酸盐矿物),Sedimentary rocks: nomenclature and formation(积岩:命名和训练),Magmatic rocks:nomenclature and formation(岩浆岩:命名与形成),Metamorphic rocks: nomenclature and formation(变质岩的形成与命名)四个方面向大家讲述了矿物岩石学的基础知识,让大家对矿物岩石学有了更全面的了解。Hans-Peter Schertl全程的英语讲解给大家带来了新的学习体验,幽默的语言表达深受大家喜爱,赢得在场师生的热烈掌声。(通讯员:秦岩)

参考答案

  1. ○4

This is a Factual Information question asking for specific information
that can be found in paragraph 1. The correct answer is choice 4.
Sentence 1 of the paragraph explicitly states that Earth’s landscape
changes relatively rapidly compared to Earth’s overall age. Choice 1, on
the frequency of landscape changes, is contradicted by the paragraph.
Choice 2, that landscape changes occur only at special times, is also
contradicted by the paragraph. Choice 3, the frequency of landscape
changes, is not mentioned.

  1. ○2

This is a Vocabulary question. The word being tested is relatively, and
it is highlighted

in the passage. The correct answer is choice 2. The sentence in which
relatively appears is comparing Earth’s time scale to the human time
scale, so “comparatively” is the correct answer.

  1. ○2

This is an Inference question asking for an inference that can be
supported by paragraph 2. The correct answer choice 2, the Himalayas arc
higher than the Caledonian mountains. The paragraph states that younger
mountains are general& higher than older mountains. It also states that
the Himalayas are much younger than the Caledonians. Since the Himalayas
are the younger range and Lounger mountain ranges are higher- than older
ranges, we can infer that the younger Himalayas are higher than the
older Caledonians.

Choices 1 and 4 are incorrect because that explicitly contradict the
passage. The height of the Himalayas is an indication of their age, and
the Himalayas are about the same height that the Caledonians were 400
million years ago. Choice 3 is incorrect because nothing there is
nothing in the paragraph about “uniform height.”

  1. ○3

This is a Vocabulary question. The word being tested is relics, and it
is highlighted in the passage. Choice 3 is the correct answer. The
1.e1ic.s of the Caledonian range are what is left of them. “Remains”
means what is left of something, so it is the correct answer.

  1. ○3

This is a Factual Information question asking for specific information
that can be found in paragraph 3. The correct answer is choice 3,
mountains are formed by crustal plates hitting each other. The paragraph
states that mountains are formed in three ways: by, crustal plates
hitting each other, by earthquakes, and by volcanoes. Choices 1,2, and 4
are not among these causes of mountain formation, so they are therefore
incorrect.

  1. ○1

This is a Rhetorical Purpose question. It asks why the author mentions
“carbon dioxide” in the passage. This term is highlighted in the
passage. The correct answer is choice 1; carbon dioxide is mentioned to
explain the origin of a chemical that can erode rocks. The author is
describing a particular cause of erosion, and the starting point of that
process is carbon dioxide.

  1. ○2

This is a Vocabulary question. The word being tested is seeps, and it is
highlighted in the passage. Choice 2, “Rows slowly,” is the correct
answer. The sentence is describing the way in which rain moves
underground from Earth’s surface. It cannot do this by “drying” (choice
1), “freezing” (choice 3), or “warming”(choice 4).

  1. ○2

This is a Reference question. The word being tested is them, and it is
highlighted in the passage. Choice 2, “masses of ice” is the correct
answer. This is a simple pronoun-referent item. The word tlze11z refers
to the glaciers that are carrying eroded rock. Notice that in this case,
a whole series of words separates the pronoun from its referent.

  1. ○2

This is a Sentence Simplification question. As with all of these items,
a singlesentence in the passage is highlighted:

Hills and mountains are often regarded as the epitome of permanence:
successfully resisting the destructive forces of nature, but in fact
they tend to be relatively short-lived in geological terms.

The correct answer is choice 2. That choice contains all of the
essential information in the highlighted sentence. it omits the
information in the second clause of the highlighted sentence
(“successfully resisting the destructive forces of nature”) because that
information is not essential to the meaning. Choices 1, 3, and 1 are all
incorrect because they change the meaning of the highlighted sentence.
Choice 1 adds information on the age of a mountain that is not mentioned
in the highlighted sentence. Choice 3 introduces information about how
long mountains resist forces of nature in absolute terms; the
highlighted sentence says that the resistance is relatively short in
geological terms, which is an entirely different meaning. Choice 4
compares mountains to other land forms. The highlighted sentence does
not make any such comparison.

  1. ○4

This is a Factual Information question asking for specific information
that can be found in paragraph 6. The correct answer is choice 4,
“sand.” Sentences 3 and 4 of that paragraph describe erosion in dry
areas. Sand is carried by wind and bombards rock; this bombardment
breaks down the rock, and, as a result, more sand is created. Thus sand
is both the cause and the result of erosion, so choice 4 is correct.
Glacial activity (choice 1) and tree roots (choice 3) are both mentioned
only as causes of erosion. Rock debris (choice 2) is mentioned only as a
result of erosion.

  1. ○1

This is an Insert Text question. You can see the four black squares in
paragraph 6 that represent the possible answer choices here.

Under very cold conditions, rocks can be shattered by ice and frost.
Glaciers may form in permanently cold areas, and these slowly moving
masses of ice cut out valleys, carrying with them huge quantities of
eroded rock debris.■ In dry areas the wind is the principal agent of
erosion.■ It carries fine particles of sand, which bombard exposed rock
surfaces, thereby wearing them into yet more sand.■ Even living things
contribute to the formation of landscapes.■ Tree roots force their way
into cracks in rocks and, in so doing, speed their splitting. In
contrast, the roots of grasses and other small plants may help to hold
loose soil fragments together, thereby helping to prevent erosion by the
wind.

The sentence provided, “Under different climatic conditions, another
type of destructive force contributes to erosion,” is best inserted at
square 1.

Square 1 is correct because the inserted sentence is a transitional
sentence, moving the discussion away from one set of climatic conditions
(cold) to another set of climatic conditions (dryness). It is at square
1 that the transition between topics takes place.

Squares 2, 3, and 4 all precede sentences that provide details of dry
climatic conditions. No transition is taking place at any of those
places, so the inserted sentence is not needed.

12.○Constructive processes: 1, 5, 6

○Destructive processes: 3, 7

This is a Fill in a Table question. It is completed correctly below. The
correct choices for the “constructive processes”column are 1, 5, and 6.
Choices 3 and 7 are the correct choices for the “destructive processes”
column. Choices 2 and 4 should not be used in either column.

在标本馆,科普志愿者介绍了地球科学的发展历程,矿物、岩石、古生物化石的形成机理,研究目的和意义。科学家从矿物摩氏硬度、晶体化学、地球化学、地质年代学、同位素地球化学、古生物学等方面,向孩子们全方位地科普这些“宝贝”的前世今生。例如,精美的古生物化石是如何获得并完好的保存至今,生命的演化经历了哪几个阶段,石油开采技术至今得到了怎样的发展,利用14C技术如何对化石样品进行定年等。面对琳琅满目的矿物岩石,聆听着它们的沧桑巨变,同学们走进了地球科学的神奇世界,同千姿百态的化石标本进行跨世纪对话。

新萄京娱乐场 1

参考译文:地理和地貌

大部分人认为自然风景是一成不变的,事实上地球是一个动态的机体,他的外貌在人类文明进程中一直保持着持续缓慢的变化。当然,与大约4万5千亿年前的冰河时代的地貌变化相比,这个进程的确快了很多。主要有两种影响会改变地形:建设性的过程,如产生新的地表特征的地壳隆起;和破坏性的力量,如缓慢清除突出地貌的地表侵蚀。

山峰和山脉因为能够经受得住自然的洗礼,通常被认作是永恒的代名词,但地质学的角度上来说,他们的存在实际上从是相对比较短暂的。一般来说,山峰越高,形成得越晚。例如喜马拉雅山,她只有5000万年的历史。低矮山峦的历史往往更加久远,它们通常是高耸的山脉崩塌后的遗留物。在大约4亿年前,当今天的北美和欧洲大陆相结合的时候,加勒多尼亚山脉与现今的喜马拉雅山脉同样雄伟,但是,加勒多尼亚山脉的形成(造山运动)在今天遗留下来的却只是相对非常低矮的格林兰山脉:美国的北阿巴拉契亚山区,苏格兰高地和挪威海岸高原。

地壳分裂成为巨大可移动的板块,板块在柔软的岩石可塑层中漂移。有的时候,这些板块互相冲击并迫使板块边缘的岩石突起,从而形成山脉。在这个过程中,原本形成在海床上的沉积岩可能被拱起高达26,000多英尺。在另一种情况下,地震将地壳震裂。产生的岩石堆积形成断块山,从而形成山脉。还有一种情况,活火山带的火山运动也会促使山脉的形成,例如北美洲西部的喀斯喀特山脉,他的产生就是由火山岩和火山灰形成的,上面的许多山峰都是死火山。

不论山脉形成的具体原因是什么,一旦陆地高出海平面,都难逃脱被外力摧毁的厄运。裸露的岩石遭受着不断变化天气的攻击,逐渐被碾成碎石块带走,然后形成沉积岩。因此,任何地貌都只是一个短暂的阶段,它所代表的是造山与侵蚀两种力量持续斗争。

多种多样的天气加速了大自然对地貌的侵蚀。雨水冲刷了疏松的土壤并渗入到岩石的缝隙。二氧化碳在空气中与雨水相互作用形成了可以对岩石进行化学腐蚀的弱酸(碳酸)。雨水渗透到地下并能在不久后以泉水的形式流出,那些从岩石间穿过并将碎石从高山带到平原的溪水就是来源于这些泉水。

在严寒的环境下,岩石能被冰霜粉碎。冰川在长期寒冷的区域形成,这些缓慢移动的大量冰块带着大量的腐蚀岩屑阻断了山谷。在干旱地带,风是大自然侵蚀的主要手段。它带着沙子中的微粒冲击着裸露的岩石表面,把岩石吹散成更多的沙粒。动植物们对自然风景的形成也是功不可没,大树植根于岩缝之中,加速了岩石的碎裂。相比之下,草根和其他矮小植物则利于固定土壤,弱化了风蚀作用的影响。

通过此次活动,同学们了解到瑰丽多姿的矿物岩石、古生物化石背后所蕴藏的科学故事和魅力,激发了他们追求真理、探索地球奥秘的兴趣和信念。

新萄京娱乐场 2

活动现场

新萄京娱乐场 3

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